Category Archives: Greenhouse gasses

Here’s why you should measure CO2 in your building

The following post is an excerpt from Daphic Scientific by Michael Forster PhD 

iStock_000057422952_LargeCO2 is a known indoor pollutant affecting performance in the workplace, at school, and even at the gym. Extreme levels of CO2 can lead to death, particularly in enclosed spaces such as laboratories, some hospital rooms, and breweries. CO2 can have a number of effects on home and workplace health and safety.

Controlling CO2 can also improve building energy efficiency, saving costs by up to 80%, and is even considered in the scoring of Green Star Ratings in building design.

Here, we outline 7 reasons why you should be measuring carbon dioxide levels inside buildings.

1.  CO2 can kill you

Outside air has a CO2 concentration around 400 ppm and each human breath contains around 30,000ppm.  As CO2 concentration around you increases, symptoms begin by causing panting, followed by tremors and loss of consciousness, and finally death.

CO2 can be hazardous in one of two ways: by displacing oxygen in the blood or as acting as a toxin.

2.  CO2 can decrease productivity

In the office and classroom, elevated levels of CO2, in the range between 1,000 ppm and 2,500 ppm, have been found to decrease concentration, increase headaches, decrease performance, and increase rates of absenteeism.  Generally, CO2 concentrations as low as 1,000ppm can lead to poor decision-making performance.

Although CO2 is not the only factor, elevated levels can lead to that feeling of lethargy and tiredness often associated with office workers.  Studies have shown that lethargy induced by elevated CO2 can decrease performance by up to 10% for adults and over 20% for school children.

3.  CO2 can increase rapidly in poorly ventilated rooms

Figure 1. An example of increasing CO2 concentration in a poorly ventilated office with a single occupant.

Figure 1. An example of increasing CO2 concentration in a poorly ventilated office with a single occupant.

In surveys of school classrooms in California and Texas, average CO2 concentrations were above 1,000 ppm, many exceeded 2,000 ppm, and in 21% of Texas classrooms peak CO2 concentration exceeded 3,000 ppm. Such high levels of CO2 could have a particularly adverse effect on concentration during exam periods.

Generally, where large numbers of people gather then CO2 will increase rapidly and lead to poor indoor air quality and pollution. In offices, this could be meeting rooms where a number of staff gather for extended periods in confined spaces.

Other places, such as gyms, shopping centers, cafes with soft drink vending machines, or libraries, are increasingly being recognized as indoor environments with elevated CO2 leading to poorer performance.

4.  Some locations have naturally high CO2 levels and need to be monitored

Figure 2. The ESRAD-102 CO2 Storage Safety Alarm can save lives in locations where extreme levels of CO2 occur.

Figure 2. The ESRAD-102 CO2 Storage Safety Alarm can save lives in locations where extreme levels of CO2 occur.

There are certain locations where indoor CO2 in an enclosed room or area can potentially reach extreme and life threatening levels.

Laboratories and hospitals may have enclosed or poorly ventilated locations where CO2 cylinders are stored or used and may potentially have harmful levels of atmospheric CO2.

In manufacturing, spaces where CO2 is regularly used are also potential areas of harmful levels of CO2.  Breweries can be extremely hazardous.  Pockets of high CO2 can form in tanks and cellars and can quickly lead to death.  Even bars, clubs and pubs, where CO2 cylinders are stored in a room, are increasingly required to monitor CO2 levels for workplace safety.

Using CO2 sensors for ventilation control can assist in these cases.  However, other systems with audible and visual alarms may warn workers and occupants of dangerous levels of CO2.

5.  Monitoring CO2 for energy efficiency

Facility managers are increasingly turning towards monitoring CO2 for Demand Controlled Ventilation (DVC). Ventilation units can automatically set air intake based on maximum occupancy rate of a room, office or classroom.  However, occupancy is often intermittent and unpredictable and may lead to over-ventilation and energy inefficiencies.  Monitoring CO2 levels and automating ventilation to intake air at pre-defined CO2 levels, such as 800ppm, will increase ventilation when it is actually needed.

One study found that monitoring CO2 for DVC saved between 5 and 80% on energy costs compared with a fixed ventilation strategy.

Other technologies to monitor occupancy level may not be as efficient as monitoring CO2 levels.  For example, humidity set points, which can vary widely, change slowly and not directly reflect occupancy.  Another method is to use a presence detector sensor, or PIR.  This method is used widely to automatically turn on lights when a person enters a room, but this method does not detect how many occupants there are in a room.  Measuring CO2, on the other hand, can determine the presence of an occupant and the number of occupants as the rate of change in CO2 levels will be higher with more occupants.

6.  Improving your green building score

The Green Building Council of Australia scores up to 2 points if CO2 levels are maintained below 800ppm or 700ppm respectively.  This move recognizes the relevance of optimal CO2 level for occupancy comfort and productivity.

The United States Green Building Council scores up to 2 points for indoor air quality assessment.

7.  The novelty factor

Most people would not have a clue what the CO2 levels in their room are, what they should be, and how they change throughout the day with various factors.  Monitoring CO2 levels with a data logger showing real-time CO2 levels is interesting. Informing your guests that you are controlling the ventilation in your building with a CO2 detector will certainly raise a few eyebrows!

CO2 technology, installation, and maintenance

Figure 3. A simplified diagram of the NDIR principle of CO2 measurement.

Figure 3. A simplified diagram of the NDIR principle of CO2 measurement.

There are two types of CO2 sensors.

The first is a simple detector that has either voltage or 4.20mA output that can run back to a BMS. These detectors are ideal where multiple units need to be installed and operated by a single BMS.

The second type is a transmitter. These detectors can connect directly into an HVAC unit to control ventilation. This type is ideal where only one sensor is needed.

Other types can additionally measure temperature and humidity providing a complete monitoring solution.

For more information on CO2 measurement devices, check out the Daphic Scientific Environmental Research & Monitoring Equipment site.

A work or learning place designed for optimal productivity leads to better performance and, ultimately, is better for the bottom line.  Monitoring and controlling CO2 levels is one approach to a healthier workplace environment.

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National News: Copenhagen and the regulation of greenhouse gases

It’s a big day in the environment for the U.S.

First, the long-awaited climate talks have begun in Copenhagen. Second, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has formally determined that greenhouse gas pollution is dangerous, setting the stage for the U.S. to regulate emissions through the Clean Air Act.

Though I know about these issues, I’m not a national news reporter, so let me point you to some great resources regarding these two very important events:

Copenhagen. The New York Times has a team of reporters covering the two-week talks. The NYT staff will also be keeping the public up to date via very informative video posts here.

If you’re looking for a local perspective, nonprofit Climate Solutions’ eco guru K.C. Golden is attending the talks. He’ll be posting periodically on the CS Journal.

There’s also this resource for journalists that I’m sharing with you (shhh, don’t tell).

On a bit of a side note, there is an excellent look at how green Denmark really is, reported by Henry Chu of the Los Angeles Times and carried in today’s Seattle Times. The article points out that Danes throw out more waste than Americans and eat more meat than we do (whodathunkit?) However, what struck me most was although Danish people throw out more waste than we do, only 5 percent of that waste ends up in a landfill, compared with 54 percent in the U.S. (Washington’s recycling rate was 55 percent in 2008. Seattle recycles 50 percent of its waste).

On the EPA side, there’s the NYT’s Green Inc. blog with the story, the general AP story is here, and a (somewhat) local version of it is here at Natural

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Seattle’s getting more BigBellys!

BigBelly trash compactors that is. What’s that you say? You don’t know what a BigBelly is, other than the thing that seems to sit on your father in law’s middle? Well friends, a BigBelly is a trash compactor that holds five times the trash of a normal can. And Seattle – which had three in March of 2008 – is about to be getting 20 more.

First, some history. I wrote about the BigBelly in March of 2008 here in the DJC after meeting

James Poss at the Globe 2008 conference, photo by Katie Zemtseff
its inventor, James Poss, at the Globe Conference in Vancouver, B.C. The BigBelly uses a solar panel to create energy, which it then uses to compact the trash inside it. This means waste haulers have to pick them up less often, which means the people paying haulers save money.

In 2008, Poss said the cans cost between $3,000 and $4,000 but pay for themselves quickly. Poss also said Seattle is a great climate for these things, because they work on ambient light, which exists when it is cloudy or rainy.

In Seattle, the 20 BigBellys will be placed along Third Avenue between Stewart and University streets by the Metropolitan Improvement District and Seattle Public Utilities. There will supposedly be a celebration at the first installation tomorrow (Saturday) from 10:30 to 11 a.m. at the west side of Third Avenue near the Stewart Street intersection.

Now, 20 BigBellys (which at $3,000 a pop totals $60,000) may seem like a big deal. But it’s not. Not when you compare it to Philadelphia, that is, which has replaced 700 downtown garbage cans with 500 BigBellys, according to the AP story which ran in the DJC last week. The story says the cans cost between $3,195 and $3,995 each (do the math, even at the lower end, it cost Philly about $1.6 million) but should save $875,000 per year, basically paying for itself in two years and then continuing to save money after. A press release for the MID says Philly plans to save $13 million over the next 10 years from the compactors

The BigBelly in action
and recycling containers that will go next to them.

The story says the cans in Philly will be emptied five times a week as opposed to 19 times for a regular trash can. The cans also have a wireless monitoring system to tell the city when they are full.

But here’s the interesting part: how many cans has Seattle been testing for over a year now? Three. How many cans did Philly test for a year before ordering 700? Three. I’m sure part of that difference has to do with the fact that Philly got some sort of a grant (the story doesn’t say what) for installations. But I think it still underscores how cautious Seattle is about making big decisions. Is Seattle too cautious here or is it smart not to jump into something like this too quick? (If you want to read the negative perspective of BigBelly, check out EcoMetro here.)

The AP story says Philly’s not the only one with BigBelly fever. Boston has 160, says they aren’t concentrated enough and wants more. Entities in New York are using 100. Chicago has 60, and they are being used in parts of Australia, Israel and France.

Seems like somebody at least thinks they’re a good concept.

And even if if weren’t a good concept, the BigBelly sure inspires some great quotes. When I spoke with Poss for the 2008 article, he described BigBelly as “carpooling for trash.”

And the AP story says Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter inititially asked, “What? Who’s got a big belly?” when he was introduced to the devices.

What do you think? Is there enough of a payoff for Seattle to invest in more of these or is our system just fine the way it is?

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Out of work? The building deconstruction industry is hiring!

This is a guest post by Dave Bennink, owner of Re-Use Consulting. 

This last week has been full of bad news relating to major corporations cutting jobs.  These job cuts are nothing compared to the amount of jobs that have been shipped overseas in the past decades.  Did you know that the City of Buffalo used to have

Image courtesy Dave Bennink
600,000 people in it and now it only has about 290,000?  First the jobs left and then the people followed.  This has left Buffalo wondering what to do with tens of thousands of abandoned homes. 

So where are we heading?  Jobs disappearing, economic slowdowns and global warming are just the start of our problems.  Fortunately, there is some good news to share:  The building deconstruction industry is creating thousands of green collar jobs, and these jobs cannot be shipped overseas! 

For years, building deconstruction has been much slower and more expensive than demolition.  Building deconstruction is the systematic disassembly of a structure to maximize reuse and recycling.  In recent years, hybrid deconstruction has allowed deconstruction and adaptive reuse companies to take down buildings faster and cheaper, completing 2,000-square-foot homes in 3 to 4 days as one example.  Even with these improvements, building deconstruction still creates 10 to 20 times more jobs than demolition while hoping to achieve an on-site landfill diversion rate of 70 percent or more (before comingled recycling options). 

These are all local jobs that cannot be shipped overseas and we are working to make them living wage jobs requiring different levels of experience and potentially launching workers into other related careers.

One thing that is clear to me is that building owners don’t want their structures demolished, they just want them removed.  Almost everyone I have talked to would rather see the their building moved intact, deconstructed, or at least salvaged or even preserved in place through adaptive reuse as long as it doesn’t take much more time and it doesn’t cost more money.  That helps the building deconstruction contractors by basing their efforts on a solid foundation. 

People realize that deconstruction creates more jobs, helps the environment, preserves local architectural elements, and assists lower-income home owners to maintain their homes.  It is also a sustainable effort, unlike some green solutions that just slow down the problems.  Deconstruction is not just saving energy and resources compared to producing all of those materials new again, but reversing problems like global warming and natural resource depletion. 

In Buffalo, we have begun to think of the streets full of abandoned homes as an asset to the community instead of a liability.  If it is decided that they must be taken down, then by deconstructing them, some of the value they hold is returned to the community, and I can tell you after 16 years in this field, it’s a great feeling knowing that you are making a difference. 

I am excited about efforts by the city of Seattle and King County, among others, to promote building deconstruction. 

The Building Materials Reuse Association is leading the way, holding a conference on the subject in Chicago in April 2009 (  Cities and groups across the Country are starting job training programs by forming deconstruction crews.  Demolition contractors are converting to deconstruction companies by performing deconstruction when their clients ask for it or it makes economic sense.  General contractors hoping to keep their crews from quiting in slow times, are beginning to offer deconstruction to their clients, knowing that they may be able to provide work to their laid-off crews.  Some schools are considering classes on deconstruction and some businesses are forming around the sales of the salvaged materials or the manufacturing of products (like tables, chairs, etc.) made from reclaimed materials. 

So if you are tired of this economic slow down and want to make a difference, join us by considering building deconstruction and considering buying reclaimed materials.  It’s  ‘buying local’ and ’employing local’ all at the same time while heading toward our goal of zero waste.

– Dave Bennink, RE-USE Consulting

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How does CBRE get to carbon neutral?

How does one of the biggest companies in the U.S. measure and decrease its carbon footprint? Theoretically, it should be a simple process, but when you’ve got 1.7 billion square feet of real estate space worldwide, that’s quite a lofty goal. The difficulty is made even more challenging when you also set a goal of being carbon neutral by 2010. But that’s what CB Richard Ellis did in May of 2007.

I’m here at GreenBuild in Boston, listening to CBRE speakers discuss the topic. Just to get a basic understanding of it takes an hour and a half!

It all began, said speaker Matthew Arnold of Sustainable Finance, when CBRE, a real estate services company, acquired Trammell Crow in 2006, making it a juggernaut of a real estate player. That deal, he said, suddenly brought a host of new questions like what is the diversity makeup of your workforce and what is your company’s sustainability plan? Arnold was hired to help answer those questions and make CBRE an environmental leader. 

In the end, the firm decided to focus on diversifying the workforce and on lowering its carbon footprint. CBRE formed a task force, which came up with a company policy in three months. Arnold said that is incredibly quick, as banks, in comparison, take about a year to do the same work.

In May of 2007, CBRE committed to being carbon neutral as a company by 2010. The commitment refers to the company’s own operation meaning activities directly owned or controlled by CBRE, electricity or heat consumed by CBRE and activities controlled by third parties that are directly linked to CBRE, though it is urging clients to do so as well. Arnold said, “For CBRE, one of the greatest benefits of all this is being able to bring it to its clients.”

Just measuring the company’s current footprint has been a huge challenge, speakers said. It is concentrating on building operations and on employee travel. In January, the company will launch an internal program to measure company travel as no such metrics had previously existed. It is using 2007 as a baseline for building operations.

At 62 percent of CBRE’s market, the U.S. is the biggest fish to catch. In the U.S., CBRE has 2.4 million square feet of space in 162 locations with 18,000 employees, according to Sherada Sullivan of CBRE’s Chicago office.

The company is working on getting more renewable energy and getting more submetering information from building owners. It will occupy only LEED certified buildings when possible in the future.

Sullivan said the company has issued a number of mandates for 2009 including requiring double-sided printers, switching marketing materials from paper to digital and banning water bottles. It is tracking the green office supplies it buys and is trying to raise that number. Sullivan said the Human Resources Department is also looking at options like telecommuting, flexible work weeks and public transit opportunities. 

But none of those actions will get a company the size of CBRE all the way to carbon neutral. Obviously, the final plan in 2010 will require a lot of offsets. Arnold said the firm is working to ensure it gets the most reputable and honest offsets it can.

For more information, visit CBRE’s sustainabilty site here.

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